Students are personally responsible for verifying that graduation requirements are met. Upon completing 75 credits, the student should formally apply for graduation at the Office of the Registrar. The Registrar’s Office then conducts an official graduation audit and notifies the student. Academic advising is provided by the Geography Department faculty.


A minor in Geography consists of a minimum of six courses, distributed as follows:

Core courses (Select two)

GEOG 100 Economic Geography OR GEOG 610 Urban Development

GEOG 210 Physical Geography

GEOG 810 Earth and People

Four additional courses in Geography are also required, at least two of which must be upper level (1000 series) courses.

GEOG 420 Cartography is strongly recommended.


GEOG 0100 Economic Geography             

Analysis of the location of economic activities and factors that affect locational decisions. Models of location for agriculture, manufacturing, retailing, and transportation systems provide a conceptual basis for examining world patterns. 3 credits

GEOG 0210 Physical Geography  

Introduction to the study of the geographical characteristics and relationships of all phenomena within the Earth's physical environment. Emphasis placed on air, land, and water distributions and the interactions between people and the physical environment. 3 credits

GEOG 0310 Geography of the United States          

A survey course dealing with the broad patterns of physical, cultural, and human geography of the United States. 3 credits

GEOG 0320 Geography of Africa 

Presents the cultural, political, demographic, and physical features of Africa emphasizing the location, spatial distribution, and interrelations among these features. 3 credits

GEOG 0325 Geography of Europe             

This course is designed to acquaint the student with geographic perspectives on Europe. Throughout the semester, the course will follow a systematic approach, examining the physical, cultural, demographic, political, urban, and economic patterns that make up the geography of contemporary Europe. Students are introduced to the diversity of the physical and human landscapes of Europe; the patterns of language, religion, and ethnicity; and the ways in which Europeans have used their land for economic and cultural purposes. Geography of Europe also examines the background and prospects of a united (and divided) Europe. Europe is experiencing tremendous change with the continued growth of the European Union and the transition to market economies in Eastern Europe. While its physical configuration remains unaltered, a process of disintegration and reintegration has changed the map in response to social, cultural, political and economic pressures. The course provides a useful geographic appreciation for the casual European traveler and valuable insights for the serious student of Europe. Making use of the tools and techniques of geographic inquiry, the course will delve into issues to provide a comprehensive understanding of today's Europe. 3 credits

GEOG 0420 Introduction to Cartography 

Examines the interpretation of social, political, economic, demographic, and physical data through the use of maps and charts. Mapping software is used to explore map projections; scale; the selection, organization, and presentation of data; cartographic techniques, and map interpretation. The history of mapmaking and maps as propaganda tools are also discussed. Computers are used for all mapping projects; no manual drafting is involved. Course is required for geography majors and is a prerequisite for GEOG 1420 Advanced Cartography and GEOG 1440 Geographic Information Systems. 3 credits

GEOG 0610 Urban Development 

The processes and consequences of urban growth are examined in cases ranging from early Mesopotamia, West Africa, and mesa America to contemporary world urbanization patterns. The U.S. urban experience is examined in depth, with particular attention given to problems of town planning, housing, transportation, and environmental quality. 3 credits

GEOG 0810 Earth and People      

Introduces the student to the nature and scope of the field of geography and demonstrates the methodology that geographers use to examine people and land relationships. A number of world regions will be analyzed in this class. 3 credits

GEOG 1130 Political Geography  

The principles of political geography are developed by a problem approach. The problems range from those of local boundaries and political patterns on the land to national boundaries and inventories with their attendant affect on national power. The classic studies in political geography are examined with emphasis on those current problems that will concern the student as a citizen in the years ahead. 3 credits

GEOG 1160 Population Geography            

A geographical study of population that examines the distribution of people on Earth; analyzes the changing patterns of fertility and mortality with their resulting natural growth; surveys the different forms of spatial mobility, both international and internal; and considers the problem of the world's population growth. 3 credits

GEOG 1190 Geodemography       

An introduction to various demographic concepts as applied to selected geographic areas. Prerequisite: GEOG 0810 or permission of instructor. 3 credits

GEOG 1200 Environmental Geography     

A pragmatic, spatial view of regional and global environmental problems. Of particular interest are those problems that transcend political boundaries. Special emphasis is placed on global environmental change. 3 credits

GEOG 1210 Climatology

Fundamentals and applications of climatology. Climate classification and climatic change are discussed. Human bioclimatology, agroclimatology, and climate modification are examined. 3 credits

GEOG 1220 Natural Hazards        

An examination of the threatening forces of nature, such as volcanoes, earthquakes, severe weather, droughts, and floods and how people enhance and respond to hazards. 3 credits

GEOG 1230 Resource Management          

An examination of alternatives in environmental management. Historical, political, social, and economic aspects of conservation and resource management are studied. 3 credits

GEOG 1240 Water Resources      

This course covers the role of water in geography and environmental systems, including describing and modeling the hydrologic cycle. Socioeconomic aspects of water demand, usage, quantity, and quality are discussed. Emphasis is placed on surface water. 3 credits

GEOG 1260 Energy, Environment, and Society      

An examination of society's production and consumption of energy, and how it is affected by the distribution of energy resources and other social, political, and economic factors. Special consideration is given to the spatial organization of the energy system and its impact on the landscape, current energy uses, and sustainable energy futures. Prerequisite: Recommended–Geog 0810. 3 credits

GEOG 1300 Russia and Eurasian States    

Presents a systematic analysis of the area's physical, human, and cultural variables and analyzes the distribution, arrangement, and interrelations of these variables. 3 credits

GEOG 1410 Field Research           

Examines various field techniques for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data. Both physical and cultural variables are studied. Students are expected to spend time in an out-of-class situation. 3 credits

GEOG 1420 GIS Special Topics     

Advanced topics in cartography. Prerequisite: GEOG 0420. 3 credits

GEOG 1425 Remote Sensing        

This course provides an introduction to remote sensing. The major goal of remote sensing is to obtain information about the earth's surface from measurements by aircraft or satellite sensors of radiated energy. Remote sensing is considered an important research field in geography and other earth sciences. Throughout the course, students will learn the basic physical principles underlying remote sensing analysis and how to process and interpret images obtained from satellite sensors. The course will introduce the basic principles of image interpretation in relation to optical, thermal, and microwave remote sensing systems. Examples of remote sensing application will be presented along with methods for obtaining quantitative information from remote sensing images. Interpretation of remote sensing images will emphasize the importance of spatial and society-environment relationships. 3 credits

GEOG 1440 Geographic Information Systems (QR)              

Explores the use of computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatially referenced data to solve problems of accessibility, optimal routes, site selection and land-use planning, market area analysis, and spatial modeling for raster and vector GIS. GIS software is used in all lab exercises. Permission of instructor required if prerequisite is not met.  Prerequisite: GEOG 0420, MATH 0001.. 3 Credits

GEOG 1600 Johnstown Area Study            

This seminar affords participants the opportunity to devise, implement, analyze, and write up an actual research project, drawing on data from the Johnstown area. The substantive topic varies from year to year; whatever the topical focus, considerable attention is paid to the practical aspects of conducting research. 3 credits

GEOG 1610 Urban Planning          

Urban planning aims to promote the social, economic, and environmental well-being of local communities. In this course, students will explore the purpose, practice, and theories of contemporary planning. They will also develop the ability to observe, analyze, and evaluate the built environment, which provides a crucial foundation for good urban policy decision-making. Through reality-based problems, students will understand the interplay between planning analysis, regulation, markets, and the political process. Course themes include the history of planning, land use and zoning, the legal framework of planning, downtown redevelopment, suburban sprawl and New Urbanism, public space, transportation planning, citizen participation in planning, and other topics. 3 credits

GEOG 1800 Special Topics            

Detailed analysis of a particular topic not covered by regularly scheduled courses. 3 credits

GEOG 1810 Directed Reading      

The student undertakes a specified course of study, comparable in content to a special topics course, under the direct supervision of a faculty member. 1–6 credits

GEOG 1820 Directed Research    

The student undertakes a defined task of research under the supervision of a faculty member in which the results of the research are embodied in a thesis, extended paper, laboratory report, or other appropriate form. 1–6 credits

GEOG 1830 Independent Study   

The student undertakes, under specific conditions, an independent program of study, research, or creative activity, usually off campus and with less immediate and frequent guidance from the sponsoring faculty member than is typically provided in directed reading and directed research courses. 1–6 credits