University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
Pitt-Johnstown Seal

2008 Alcohol Policy

Institutional Statement on Alcohol and Other Drugs

Substance Abuse is a concern of significance in our country. The University has established a comprehensive policy concerning the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by students and employees. It is of the utmost importance that each student read, and be familiar with University policies regarding alcohol and other drugs. Please make sure you read the information provided in this Code and in various other University publications.

University students are adults. They, as well as all members of the University community, are expected to obey the law and take personal responsibility for their conduct. The relationship between the University and its students is a non-custodial one. The University will not invade the personal lives of the members of its community on or off the campus, nor conduct unreasonable searches and seizures. The University community includes faculty, staff, students and guests.

Our policy has been designed to give reasonable assurance that campus regulations, township ordinances, and Pennsylvania laws will be complied with. Members of the University community will be subject to disciplinary action, or legal process, for violation of laws, ordinances, and regulations, as well as procedures designed to comply with the same.

Social Impact

Substance abuse is a major social and medical problem in the United States.  It is known that serious consequences result from substance abuse.  Abusers create problems for themselves and also indirectly for employers, co-workers, classmates, family, and society in general.  Substance abuse problems can develop in men and women of all ages, races, and occupations and can have long-reaching effects. 

In a variety of areas, the research supports the fact that alcohol abuse greatly impacts the social behavior of college students:

  • About 25 percent of college students report academic consequences of their drinking including missing class, falling behind, doing poorly on exams or papers, and receiving lower grades overall (Engs et al., 1996; Presley et al., 1996a, 1996b; Wechsler et al., 2002).
  • 2.1 million students between the ages of 18 and 24 drove under the influence of alcohol last year (Hingson et al., 2002).
  • About 11 percent of college student drinkers report that they have damaged property while under the influence of alcohol (Wechsler et al., 2002).
  • More than 25 percent of administrators from schools with relatively low drinking levels and over 50 percent from schools with high drinking levels say their campuses have a "moderate" or "major" problem with alcohol-related property damage (Wechsler et al., 1995).
  • About 5 percent of 4-year college students are involved with the police or campus security as a result of their drinking (Wechsler et al., 2002) and an estimated 110,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are arrested for an alcohol-related violation such as public drunkenness or driving under the influence (Hingson et al., 2002).
  • 31 percent of college students met criteria for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 6 percent for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in the past 12 months, according to questionnaire-based self-reports about their drinking (Knight et al., 2002).

Health Effects

Drinking alcohol contributes to health problems including diseases of the liver, digestive tract, respiratory, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.  Among students, problems can also arise from inexperience and lack of control. Additionally, substance use can lead to academic problems, injuries, campus crime, legal problems, fights, and interpersonal problems.

Again, the research supports the fact that alcohol abuse has a severe impact on the health and safety of college students:

  • More than 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape (Hingson et al., 2005).
  • 400,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 had unprotected sex and more than 100,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report having been too intoxicated to know if they consented to having sex (Hingson et al., 2002).
  • 599,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are unintentionally injured under the influence of alcohol (Hingson et al., 2005).
  • More than 696,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 are assaulted by another student who has been drinking (Hingson et al., 2005).
  • More than 150,000 students develop an alcohol-related health problem (Hingson et al., 2002) and between 1.2 and 1.5 percent of students indicate that they tried to commit suicide within the past year due to drinking or drug use (Presley et al., 1998).
  • 1,700 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die each year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries, including motor vehicle crashes (Hingson et al., 2005).

Prevention and Education

The University, through its student support centers, will distribute literature informing students of the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse within and outside the campus community, and provide information on available sanctions that may be imposed for violation of this policy. The University, through its employment centers, will distribute literature informing employees of the dangers of drug abuse in the workplace, and provide information on available drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs.

Students should be aware of the rules and regulations outlined in the University of Pittsburgh At Johnstown Student Code Of Conduct And Judicial Procedures regarding alcohol and drugs. Sanctions for violation of this policy range from attendance at the Choices About Responsible Drinking (CARD) to Disciplinary Dismissal.

The applicable legal sanctions under federal, state, and/or local laws include, but are not limited to, a monetary fine, suspension of motor vehicle operating privileges, imprisonment, community service, counseling/treatment, or completion of a mandatory education program.

Alcohol and other drug problems on the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown campus are addressed through three levels of prevention programming: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

Primary prevention will be directed toward individuals who have chosen not to use illicit drugs or alcohol. Recognizing that most students reach 21 years of age during their college experience, the University's educational program incorporates material on responsible decision-making that addresses alcohol and other lifestyle choices. Program efforts are directed toward creating a supportive campus environment that reinforces non-use of illicit drugs and the responsible, legal use of alcohol. Ideally, these program efforts prevent individuals from ever abusing alcohol or other drugs.

Secondary prevention is the programming designed to identify and assist individuals considered at high risk for developing alcohol or other drug problems. Individuals who exhibit some level of problematic alcohol or other drug use, or who come from a family afflicted with substance abuse would be suitable targets for intervention activities.

Tertiary prevention will be aimed at individuals already treated for substance abuse and who are in recovery. Program activities should assist these members of the University community in preventing relapse and maintaining their recovery on campus. Several departments throughout the University support these educational efforts through program and/or curriculum development.

Student Health Service G10 Student Union

The Student Health Services Office offers a variety of services to enhance personal and community health along with informative materials that encourage healthy lifestyles. The harm that often results from substance abuse is of great concern to our campus community; therefore, many prevention and intervention programs are available to students throughout their college years. In addition to the educational programs provided to all incoming students during Orientation as well as in the Freshman Studies classes, fraternities and sororities, and other campus groups, an educational intervention program, Choices About Responsible Drinking (CARD), is offered to students.

The CARD program is designed to reduce the problems associated with alcohol and other drug abuse among students. Although any student may access CARD, most students are referred to the program as a sanction for violating the University alcohol and other drug policies.

Counseling Center 121 Blackington Hall

Mental health professionals are available to help students with any personal problems or concerns. People come to the center for a wide variety of reasons: personal problems involving relations with parents or peers, emotional or social difficulties, marital conflicts, concerns about academic progress, etc. Confidentiality is strictly maintained.

The center is open from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. There is no charge for counseling services.

For information or appointments phone 814-269-7119 or stop at 121 Blackington Hall.

I. EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES

  1. The officers of all student Organizations shall be required to attend a workshop, coordinated by the Director of Health Services and the Office of the Associate Vice President for Student Affairs, once during each term. The workshop will educate students about State laws, alcohol use and abuse, and emphasize responsible drinking.
  2. No alcohol may be sold on campus. This includes sale of tickets for admission to a party at which alcohol will be distributed.
  3. Alcohol may not be served at any on-campus student function. Furthermore, alcohol may not be possessed or consumed at any on-campus student function, except as subject to the provisions related to the current registered social event process or registered designated members' only event.
  4. Students and/or student organizations are not permitted to have vendors deliver alcoholic beverages on University property.
  5. Common sources (kegs, bulk containers, "pumpers", quantity of cases, etc.) are prohibited on campus.
  6. Alcoholic beverages are not permitted to be stored or consumed in any student office on University property.
  7. Activity fee monies may not be used for the purchase of alcohol at any student event regardless of location.
  8. Private behavior and alcohol consumption off-campus without the financial support or sponsorship of the University or any student organization is solely the responsibility of those involved.
  9. Alcoholic beverages may only be served at off-campus events funded or sponsored by a student organization when a licensed vendor distributes the alcohol according to Liquor Control Board ("LCB") regulations, Pennsylvania law, and accepts full responsibility for distribution.
  10. No social event shall include any form of "drinking contests" in its activities or promotion.
  11. Alcoholic beverages cannot be used as the principal means to recruit members to any organization.
  12. Social event advertisements indicating alcohol will be served are strictly prohibited.
  13. Alcoholic beverages may be served at University related administrative and/or faculty functions.
  14. At each University function, the "host" shall be responsible for insuring compliance with this Policy and Pennsylvania laws relating to alcoholic beverages. The "host" will be considered to be the most senior official present in the school, department, or other segment of the University sponsoring function.
  15. Alcoholic beverages marketing programs must adhere to "Pitt-Johnstown Campus Guidelines for Marketing Alcoholic Beverages." A copy of these guidelines may be obtained from the Office of Student Life, 130 Student Union.

II. RESIDENCE HALLS

  1. Only residents twenty-one (21) years of age or older shall be permitted to possess, consume, or transport alcoholic beverages in the residences. Note: Certain residence halls are "alcohol free." As such, alcoholic beverages are absolutely prohibited in these areas regardless of one's age.
  2. Unless an individual is attending a registered event or a members' only event, residents from other buildings, non-resident guests or commuters are not permitted entrance with alcoholic beverages, regardless of age.
  3. Distribution of alcoholic beverages to any resident/guest under the legal age of twenty-one (21) is absolutely prohibited.
  4. Only factory-sealed containers of alcoholic beverages may be brought into the residences.
  5. Bulk containers, including kegs of any size, "pumpers", beer balls, etc. are prohibited. Storage of empty kegs, taps, or other bulk dispensers is prohibited. Such items will be confiscated.
  6. All alcoholic beverages must be registered with a Residence Director, a Resident Assistant, or a University Police Officer on an "Alcoholic Beverage Registration Form" before entry to a residence with alcoholic beverages is permitted.
  7. Alcoholic beverages are registered to a student's assigned room or apartment. Unless an individual is attending a registered social event or members' only event, alcoholic beverages cannot be transported to another room, apartment, or a public area (hallways, lobbies, outdoors, etc.). Open containers holding alcoholic beverages out of doors or in public areas are prohibited.
  8. The amount of alcoholic beverages registered per person per seven day period cannot exceed a) twelve (12) 16 oz. cans of beer, or b) one (1) pint bottle or one (1) 375 ml. bottle of liquor, or c) one (1) 1.5 liter bottle of wine, or d) two (2) four packs of wine coolers.
  9. Where alcohol is present, residents of a room or apartment are limited to a total of five visitors at any one time. A visitor is considered to be any individual not assigned to the room or apartment.
  10. Residents are ultimately responsible and legally accountable for their actions and the actions of their visitors, including any damages or injuries which result from their actions during or after the consumption of alcoholic beverages.
  11. Residents and guests will be subject to sanctions by Housing and Residence Life, Judicial Board actions, and Civil prosecution upon failure to comply with "Regulations for Alcohol Use in Pitt Johnstown Residences."
  12. When the ownership of alcoholic beverages, containers, and other mechanisms that are used to dispense alcohol is in question, those individuals legally assigned to rooms or apartments will be considered the owners of such and will be subject to sanctioning.
  13. Regardless of ownership or origin, unauthorized alcoholic beverages, bottled beer, alcoholic beverages found in the possession of minors, bulk containers (e.g. kegs and "pumpers"), and taps or other mechanisms that have been used to dispense alcohol in the residence halls will be confiscated and disposed of.
  14. Vendors will not be permitted to deliver alcoholic beverages to residence halls.

III. ENFORCEMENT OF PITT-JOHNSTOWN POLICIES ON ALCOHOL

1. Procedural guidelines for compliance with this policy shall be developed by the Vice President for Academic and Student Affairs who will have responsibility for the administration, interpretation and enforcement of the policy.

2. Those violating this Policy are subject to sanctions. Sanctions can include, but are not limited to, criminal process, termination of employment, social probation, suspension or termination of housing privileges, suspension or termination from the University and suspension or termination of the Organization’s charter.
 

IV. RICHLAND TOWNSHIP ORDINANCE

Pitt-Johnstown is located in Richland Township. The Richland Township supervisors approved Ordinance No. 117 on June 16, 1980. Excerpts from that ordinance follow:

SECTION 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to consume alcoholic beverages on the sidewalks, streets, avenues, alleys, playgrounds, parks, parking lots or other public places within the Township of Richland.

SECTION 2. Any person violating said Ordinance shall upon summary conviction before a District Magistrate be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding Twenty-five ($25.00) Dollars, and costs of prosecution and in default of the payment of the fine imposed and costs, be sentenced to serve not more than five (5) days in the Cambria County Jail.

V. Individual Fraternity/Sorority Member Responsibilities;
Recognized Group Responsibility

Recognized Groups, defined by the Office of Student Life, as well as individual fraternity and sorority members who hold membership in a Recognized Group, shall comply with the following minimum requirements at all times while they are engaged in any event while on the University's campus and any official, organized or sponsored Event of a Recognized Group, whether on or off the University's property ("Event"):

1. They shall:

  • a. Act in a safe manner, not causing any undue risk of personal injury or property damage to any person;
  • b. Not emit or discharge, or permit the emission or discharge, of any hazardous substance or any noxious odor, dust, smoke, gas or other pollutant;
  • c. Not generate, or permit the generation of any unreasonable or extraordinary amounts of vibration, noise or traffic;
  • d. Not disturb the peace.

2. They shall abide by all applicable federal, state, and municipal laws and University policies, rules, and regulations.

3. They shall not possess, fire, discharge, or detonate any firearm or explosive device at any time.

4. They shall not litter or deposit refuse, garbage, or other similar waste materials except in containers on property of the appropriate Recognized Group, which have been appropriately designated for such use and which are located in areas designated by the University.

VI. Housing

All Recognized Groups residing in University-owned facilities shall comply with the terms of their housing contract, shall cause their members to comply with the terms of their Housing and Dining Services contract, and shall ensure compliance with all other applicable rules and regulations. Only active clubs/organizations that live in an on-campus residence facility in recognized organizational housing, as defined by the Office of Housing and Residence Life, shall be permitted to register for social events in their living space.  All others wanting to host a social event may hold events in the Log Cabin by following the procedure for reserving the Log Cabin and obtaining social event approval from the Office of Student Life.  The Log Cabin will be made available on a first-come first-serve basis.

VII. ALCOHOL POLICY

1. Recognized Groups must fully comply with all applicable laws, including without limitation the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania regarding the possession, consumption, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages. Among other things, Pennsylvania law prohibits:

a.   Furnishing or providing alcohol to anyone under the age of twenty-one (21) or to anyone visibly intoxicated, under any circumstances.

b.   Anyone under the age of twenty-one (21) from possessing or consuming alcohol, under any circumstances.

2. Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, each Recognized Group and its members are responsible for compliance with this policy at all times, including activities taking place anywhere, whether on or off campus in official chapter houses, in private domiciles, or in publicly or privately owned facilities or elsewhere.

3. The decision as to whether to have alcoholic beverages at the functions of Recognized Groups is left to the discretion of those groups, except where otherwise prohibited (i.e., rush events, mixers). However, enforcement of, and compliance with this policy is the responsibility of the sponsoring Recognized Group, subject to compliance review, in its sole discretion, by the University's Office of Student Life.

4. Recognized Groups, and their members, will be responsible for compliance with this policy by their guests (i.e., persons present at an event, but not a member of a participating Recognized Group).

5. The elected officers and corporate officers of each Recognized Group are responsible for formulating and implementing internal rules and procedures specific to their own Recognized Group, which shall insure conformity with this policy. Organizations without standard hierarchical executive positions must select four members of their organization to serve as the house management team, and will have responsibility for social events and their registration.

6. The following rules shall apply to Recognized Groups for activities at which alcoholic beverages are present and guests are in attendance (sometimes hereinafter referred to as "Events"):

A.  The purchase and/or use of bulk quantity alcohol is prohibited, including but not limited to kegs, liquor, hard alcohol, and greater than six (6) 16 ounce cans of beer per person of legal drinking age in attendance.  In addition, no alcoholic beverages may be purchased through the Organization treasury of the Recognized Group, nor may the purchase of alcoholic beverages for members or guests be undertaken or coordinated by any member in the name of, or on behalf of, the Recognized Group.

B.   All Activities at which alcoholic beverages are present must be held as "Bring Your Own Beverage" (BYOB) activities.  The maximum amount of alcohol allowed is one six pack of sixteen ounce beer per person (of legal drinking age) per Event.  Absolutely no beverages in glass containers are allowed at any Event.  If the Event occurs at the official chapter house or organization lodge, the residents of the house must abide by these same regulations.

C.   When a person of legal drinking age arrives at the Event, they shall be given a wristband.  An appointed monitor, who shall not be permitted to ingest any alcoholic beverage on the day of the start of the Event, or during the Event will instruct guests to present alcohol before entrance will be granted.

i.    The maximum amount of alcohol any person can bring to an Event is six (6) 16 ounce beers.

ii.    If a person reasonably appears to be intoxicated or is known to be intoxicated, a wristband shall not be given to that person. The person should be denied admittance to the Event.

D.  "Open" parties will not be permitted.  Guests will be invited in advance and sign in upon arrival at an Event. Unless prior arrangements have been made, invitation lists must be reconciled by noon the following Monday with the Office of Student Life.

i.    All social functions, both on and off campus, must be officially registered and preapproved by the Office of Student Life.  Off-campus activities must be held in full compliance with all applicable requirements of the third party vendor that owns the location where the Event is held.

    • Registration forms must be time and date stamped at the Office of Student Life using the University's official Social Function form, by no later than Noon on the Friday immediately prior to the Event. Failure to submit forms on time will result in denial of approval. In addition, House Manager must meet with the Director of Student Engagement or their designee by no later than Noon on the Friday immediately prior to the Event.
    • For on-campus fraternity houses, the maximum number of persons present at the Event shall not exceed the occupancy limit set by the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown in cooperation with the Richland Township Fire Marshall.
    • All invitation lists must be completed accurately, truthfully, legibly and in detail. NO EXCEPTIONS.
    • Completed invitation lists must be turned in to the Director of Student Engagement or their designee no later than 5:00 PM the Monday following an event.

ii.    All Recognized Groups must designate one location at which all social functions will be held during that semester, no later than seven days after the beginning of each semester, as well as provide the information to the Office of Student Life.  Changes to the designated location may be permitted, provided that the University is notified of the change, in writing, no later than two weeks prior to any Event in a newly-designated location.

iii.   A Recognized Group's President (or highest ranking officer), House Manager, or Risk Management Chair must sign in each Guest at an Event. This individual is not permitted to ingest any alcoholic beverage on the day of the start of the Event, or during the Event.

    • a. Registered parties may only be held on a Friday or Saturday from the hours of 10:00 PM until 2:00 AM. The hours of activities at the off-campus establishments of third party vendors may be set at the discretion of the Recognized Group. At registered Events (other than those held at the off-campus establishments of third party vendors):

i. All doors are to be closed no later than 1:00 AM. Guests are not to be admitted into the Event after such time unless they have been previously, and properly, signed in on the official invitation list. NO NEW GUESTS ARE ALLOWED IN AFTER 1:00AM.

ii. Only one entrance, or door, shall be used for guest registration and exit. No other door shall be in use except in case of an emergency.

iii. Registration must be located at the entrance/exit.

    • b.   Individuals under the age of eighteen (18), who are not students registered at the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown shall not be present while an Event is in progress without a parent or guardian. Proper forms of identification, such as a state identification card, driver's license or University ID, must be presented to enter.
    • c.   At least two members of the sponsoring Recognized Group's executive board shall be designated as contacts (each a "Contact") for the entire duration of an Event.

i. One Contact must be the President or highest-ranking officer, in attendance. The second shall be Risk Management Chairman, Social Chairman, House Manager, or any other member approved by the Office of Student Life.

ii. The two designated Contacts must be listed on the official registration form approved by the Office of Student Life.

    • d.   Each individual in attendance at an Event must be clearly identifiable as over or under the age of twenty-one (21) through a hand stamp, wristband, or other method previously approved by the Office of Student Life.

i. All members of the sponsoring Recognized Group must be clearly identified though a different colored wristband, previously approved by the Office of Student Life.

    • e.   Unscheduled random checks may be made by any authorized University representative for health and safety reasons and to otherwise ensure compliance with University policies and these Standards.
    • f.    Non-alcoholic beverages and non-salty food must be available throughout the duration of the Event.

 

VIII. Policy Statement Regarding Displays
of an Alcoholic Nature

Empty alcohol containers are not to be displayed in any area of University housing (rooms, common areas, etc). Display is to be defined as posted for decorative intent, improper disposal after consumption, or otherwise visible.  While alcohol-related items (posters, flyers, signs, etc.) advertising alcohol are permitted, these items must not be displayed in a manner that is blatantly visible through outside windows, from hallways, or from other entry areas.  Such items are not to be displayed in common areas of any residential facility.


SANCTIONS

1st Offense  

 Individual Group
 Residence Hall Reprimand Residence Hall Reprimand
 $50.00 Fine $75.00 Fine
 Item Confiscation Advisor Notification
  Item Confiscation


2nd Offense  

Individual Group 
Residence Hall Probation  Social Probation
$75.00 Fine $100.00 Fine 
Item ConfiscationAdvisor Notification
Item Confiscation


3rd Offense  

Individual  Group
Residence Hall Suspension Notice Community Termination Notice 
Extended Probationary PeriodExtended Social Probationary Period 
CARD and/or Community ServiceCARD and/or Community Service
$100.00 Fine$150.00 Fine 
Parental NotificationAdvisor Notification 
Item ConfiscationItem Confiscation 

4th Offense  

 IndividualGroup 
Residence Hall Suspension Termination of Community 
Parental Notification Advisor Notification 
Item Confiscation Item Confiscation 

Note:  In the event of common area violations where the common area cannot be associated with a specific recognized group (Greek, athletic, independent or otherwise), the violation will result in a $75.00 common area fine each time a violation occurs.  In the event of repeated violations, a community meeting will be held by a member of the Housing and Residence Life staff in an effort to address and correct behavior.

IX. Policy Statement Addressing Inappropriate
and/or Excessive Consumption

The University seeks to encourage and sustain an academic environment that both respects individual freedom and promotes the health, safety and welfare of all members of its community.  The consumption of alcoholic beverages by students so as to adversely affect academic performance and/or endanger the physical well-being of other persons and/or oneself, and/or which leads to damage of property is in direct conflict with this aim.  As such, excessive amounts of alcohol are prohibited, as in paraphernalia, activities, or drinking games that encourage rapid consumption of alcohol.  Therefore, the possession and/or use of drinking paraphernalia or products that promotes the abuse of alcohol and/or put the user in a position to consume alcohol irresponsibly, is prohibited.  This includes, but is not limited to, funnels, beer bongs, beer pong tables, taps, and kegs.

SANCTIONS

1st Offense  

Individual Group 
Disciplinary Reprimand Social Probation 
Community Service Advisor Notification 
$25.00 Fine $50.00 Fine 
Item Confiscation Item Confiscation 

2nd Offense  
 

Individual Group 
Disciplinary Probation Extended Social Probation 
CARDCommunity Service
$50.00 Fine $75.00 Fine 
Item Confiscation Advisor Notification
 Item Confiscation 

3rd Offense  

Individual Group 
Residence Hall Suspension Notice Community Termination Notice
Counseling Assessment Extended Social Probation
$75.00 Fine CARD
Parental Notification$100.00 Fine
Item Confiscation Advisor Notification 
 Item Confiscation 

 
4th Offense  

Individual Group 
Residence Hall Suspension Termination of Community
Parental NotificationAdvisor Notification 
Item ConfiscationItem Confiscation

 

References

Hingson RW, Heeren T, Zakocs RC, Kopstein A, Wechsler H. Magnitude of alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18-24. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 63(2):136-144, 2002

Hingson, R. et al. Magnitude of Alcohol-Related Mortality and Morbidity Among U.S. College Students Ages 18-24: Changes from 1998 to 2001. Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 26, 259-79; 2005

Knight JR, Wechsler H, Kuo M, Seibring M, Weitzman ER, Schuckit M. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S. college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2002, in press.

Presley CA, Meilman PW, Cashin JR. Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment, Vol. IV: 1992-1994. Carbondale, IL: Core Institute, Southern Illinois University, 1996a.

Presley CA, Leichliter MA, Meilman PW. Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: A Report to College Presidents: Third in a Series, 1995, 1996, 1997. Carbondale, IL: Core Institute, Southern Illinois University, 1998.

Wechsler H, Moeykens B, Davenport A, Castillo S, Hansen J. The adverse impact of heavy episodic drinkers on other college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 56(6):628-634, 1995.

Last Reviewed: February 1, 2008