University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
Pitt-Johnstown Seal

Fall - Winter 2004

THE LOCATIONAL STRATEGIES OF FOUR DEPARTMENT STORES IN THE BALTIMORE, MARYLAND SUBURBS

Mary M. Graham, York College of Pennsylvania
Richard D. Stone, Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania
Lynn Harris, Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania

Abstract 

In 1945, Hecht’s, Hochschild-Kohn, Hutzler’s, and Stewart’s department stores were located near each other in downtown Baltimore.  The place strategies that each of  the four chains used are the subject of this article.

 Changing demographic patterns, especially population shifts, and ethnic changes, are compared to intended target markets.  Locational choices of each of the four stores are analyzed in relation to the strategy of each chain, the type of store, the business area, the target market, and the results of these choices.


HISTORICAL ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN PENNSYLVANIA

Charles Geiger, Department of Geography
Millersville University, Pennsylvania

Abstract

Commercial electricity production in Pennsylvania has a 130-year history, the second longest among the US states.  Each stage of its evolution, from numerous small local producers, to large regional monopolies, to the current deregulated structure, has created a different spatial structure, in addition to its technological and economic structures.  Mapping the electricity generating stations within the system enables the comparison of production and consumption locations, which shows apparent electrical service inefficiency.  Pennsylvania’s role as a fuel producer has helped to create some of those inefficiencies.  It is hoped that this research can lead to more sound criteria for such location decisions.


PENNSYLVANIA LIQUOR CONTROL BOARD WINE SALES: SEPTEMBER 2000 TO AUGUST 2002

Robert Sechrist, Geography & Regional Planning
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

Wine is an important commodity with significant historical and social influence in Western society.  The ability to observe the complete flow of a commodity, from its varied sources to its retailer in a large region is a privilege rarely granted a researcher.  In Pennsylvania, wine sales are the monopoly of the Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board (PaLCB).  With their gracious assistance and cooperation, I was provided with detailed wine sales data for the two-years commencing on September 20, 2000.  The following text reports on the geographic character of Pennsylvania wine consumption.

During the two year study period, Pennsylvanians purchased 84,447,539 units of wine.  The total value of these wines was $864,509,932.  Of these, 71,618,333 units were purchased by individuals at one of the 643 state owned retail outlets, the remainder were purchased by licensees (restaurants) for table sale.  California White Zinfandel is the top selling wine variety in Pennsylvania.  Residents of urban places purchase more wine per capita than rural persons.


PATTERNS OF PHOSPHORUS AND NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN SMALL CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA STREAMS

Heejun Chang, Department of Geography
Portland State University

Toby N. Carlson, Department of Meteorology
The Pennsylvania State University

Abstract

As part of an ongoing class project at the Pennsylvania State University, measurements of phosphorus (P) and nitrate-N (N) concentrations were determined from samples in three small Central Pennsylvania gauged streams and in surface runoff over urban areas during late winter rainstorms from 2000 to 2003. Results suggest that a flushing effect for P and a dilution effect for N during storm events. This pattern is distinct in Thompson Run, the smallest and the most urban watershed. Compared to a day’s fair-weather conditions before storms, surface runoff in rain events provides a large fraction of P loading (70 – 92 %) and a medium fraction of N loading to stream water (45 – 71 %) during two storm events. Urban and probably riparian surfaces constitute a very important source of P. N compounds may also be contributed somewhat by urban and riparian surfaces, although the results suggest that groundwater is a more important source for this element.


EFFECTS OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE ON COLD STREAM, CENTRE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

Ah-Young Cho, Peter Mangione,
Justin Mendinsky, and Dae Ryong Park
The Pennsylvania State University

Abstract

Acid mine drainage emanating from abandoned mine lands surrounding the Phillipsburg, Pennsylvania, area threatens the vitality of Cold Stream, once a high-quality coldwater fishery. Various restoration efforts have been made since 1970 and most recently during the late 1990s to preserve the water quality of the stream so that it may sustain a thriving trout population. On March 20, 2004, students at Pennsylvania State measured the pH along Cold Stream in order to assess the effectiveness of the restoration practices in mitigating the impact of acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned strip mines adjacent to the stream and to determine at what locations along Cold Stream might still be impaired. Fifteen sample locations in the Cold Stream watershed were chosen for sampling of pH. Data taken were compared with those measured during a 1998-1999 study by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP; 2001). The results of the Penn State investigation show that restoration efforts undertaken throughout the watershed have proven effective in mitigating the impact of mine drainage and preserving the water quality of Cold Stream.


DISTANCE-DECAY EFFECTS:  THE CASE OF A SMALL PENNSYLVANIA RETAIL FLOWER BOUTIQUE

Jenny L. Butchko and Joseph W. Bencloski
Department of Geography and Regional Planning
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

This study examined the distance-decay effect as it applied to a small Fayette County, Pennsylvania, retail floral boutique.  Correlation and graphic analyses revealed a strong inverse relationship between the number of walk-in customers and distance from the flower shop, a relationship that is consistent with previous research.  For each of four samples, the study also revealed a steep distance-decay curve with more than one-half of the customers originating within two miles of the shop.  The relatively small service area for the boutique is a function of both competition from nearby florists who offer a similar product, and individual decisions about travel costs versus planned expenditures for flowers.


TRENDS OF POLITICAL DISTRICTING IN PENNSYLVANIA:  AN ANALYSIS USING SHAPE AND BOUNDARY
CONFIGURATION INDEXES

Donald W. Buckwalter, Department of Geography and Regional Planning
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Robert Wilson, Spatial Sciences Research Center
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Abstract

 This study uses shape indexes and the example of Pennsylvania to analyze the inherently geographical configuration of political districts.  It tests the hypothesis that compactness has deteriorated since the landmark decisions of the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s.  Hex indexes and Miller's indexes use equilateral hexagons and circles as theoretically ideal shapes.  Indexes are compiled for county shapes to provide a pragmatic benchmark standard for the analysis.  State Senate and State House of Representatives districts were less compact than counties in 1960, and their index values have diminished with each subsequent decennial reapportionment.  They now are closer to the shape of line segments than to the ideal compact shapes of circles or hexagons.  The trend has implications for campaign efficiency, representative responsiveness, voter turnout, and community of interest issues.  Such issues should be investigated by geographers whose investigations could inform the courts and legislators responsible for redistricting decisions. 


GEOGRAPHY OF NATUROPATHY IN THE UNITED STATES: CURRENT STATUS

Donald Patrick Albert, Department of Geography and Geology
Sam Houston State University

Ferry Butar Butar, Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Sam Houston State University

Abstract

Naturopathic medicine is on the rise in the United States since the 1970s. This article summarizes the authors’ research that explores the geography of naturopathy in the United States, and less so Canada. Topics such as the reemergence of naturopathic medicine, the diffusion of state licensing, the distribution and concentration of naturopathic physicians (NDs), and potential health care policy implications are reviewed.


MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH

Shahalam M.N. Amin, Department of Geography and Geosciences,
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania

Nasima Akhter, School of Environment, Resource and Development
Asian Institute of Technology
Pathumthani, Thailand

Abstract

Solid waste management is a major problem that causes severe degradation of the environment in Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The waste problem not only overwhelms city management, it also exposes millions of people to significant health risks. Although medical waste comprises a small amount of the total waste generated in the city, the very nature of the waste and its distribution in close proximity to millions of people deserve special attention. Most hospitals and clinics do not have the facilities and protocols for the safe disposal of this waste. Most of this unsorted waste is dumped in roadside municipal waste collection bins and may facilitate the spread of disease. Lack of knowledge, initiative, and resources is responsible for the improper management of medical waste in Dhaka City. Infectious and hazardous waste needs to be separated before disposal and collection, and treatment of such waste in a central location seems plausible.